Thursday, August 27, 2020

Spanish in the Classroom

Spanish in the Classroom Free Online Research Papers Benton Middle School is situated in Los Angeles where most of the populace is Latino, comprising of 1,871 understudies. Of the 1,397 understudies in the school, 1,415 understudies are Latino which makes up 76% of the populace. I watched a 6th grade class with thirty-one understudies. Thirteen of which were Latino understudies. Understudies in this class are viewed as â€Å"sheltered† students. During my first seven day stretch of perceptions on October 11, 2006, I saw understudies utilized Spanish when speaking with Ms. Mendez. As understudies settled in their seats for morning declarations, Kimberly stated, â€Å"Ayer†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (I couldn't follow what Kimberly was stating because of my failure to get Spanish). Ms. Mendez answered, â€Å"Good! In any case, we can’t talk about that correct now OK? We have a great deal to do today.† For this situation, Kimberly began a discussion in Spanish with Ms. Mendez and Ms. Mendez answered in English. Around the same time, understudies were learning an exercise on â€Å"shadows†. While understudies took a shot at their individual worksheets, Ernesto lifted his hands and got Ms. Mendez’s consideration. Ernesto asked, â€Å"Como se hace†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Ms. Mendez answered, â€Å"You need to shading the image that you believe is a shadow.† Again, Ms. Mendez utilized English to disclose to Ernesto wh at he needs to do. Despite the fact that Ms. Mendez reacts in an unexpected language in comparison to that of Kimberly and Ernesto, they show nothing unexpected or response to Ms. Mendez’s employments of English. Both Kimberly and Ernesto proceed with their work as though a typical discussion has quite recently happened. As understudies were working their assignments, Ms. Mendez composes cards that she sends home to her students’ guardians. Every week, she selects one understudy to send a card home. This effectively connects to the guardians of understudies and furthermore associating with students’ lives outside of the study hall. In my perceptions, I found that it is amazingly hard to arrange an individual as somebody who fits in with social multiplication or somebody who doesn't do this. It is hard to recommend whether somebody is genuinely mindful or not. It is hard to discover that an educator rehearses subtractive tutoring or is against subtractive tutoring. Social multiplication includes â€Å"schools, instructors, and educational plans saw as components of ideological control that work to imitate and keep up predominant convictions, qualities, standards, and harsh practices† (Leistyna, 1995). Frequently when understudies impart in Spanish with Ms. Mendez, she reacts in English. For instance, when Kimberly shared about what she did the day preceding, Ms. Mendez answered in English. It was a basic discussion that both Kimberly and Ms. Mendez can connect with utilizing Spanish, yet Ms. Mendez likes to utilize English to react to Kimberly. This shows Ms. Mendez’s privileging English over Spanish. At the point when she reacts in English, she certainly proposes that English has more an incentive than Spanish, along these lines she just communicates in English to them. At the point when Ms. Mendez reacts in English and not in Spanish, understudies may expect that English ought to be utilized and not Spanish. For this situation, we unmistakably observe that student’s social information, which is Spanish, are esteemed not exactly English in the homeroom. Practically all understudies in the class get Spanish, yet Ms. Mendez decides to utilize English. This episode exhibits that English is the favored language in the study hall. Doubtlessly genuine mindful and social generation are at various finishes of the range. Somebody that really cares would not â€Å"reproduce and keep up prevailing convictions, qualities, standards, and severe practices† (Leistyna, 1995). Ms. Mendez presents us with a Catch 22 as I accept she is genuinely mindful and simultaneously captivating in social generation. Valenzuela characterizes â€Å"authentic mindful as â€Å"connection, unequivocal love, and a far reaching securing of â€Å"the other† (157). Valenzuela additionally brings up that the â€Å"best instructor †¦loves Mexicans and the Spanish language that we speak† (157). Ms. Mendez show â€Å"authentic caring† by associating with her students’ lives outside of the homeroom. She regularly gets some information about their life at home and she likewise attempts to interface her exercises to her students’ regular daily existences. For example, in an exercise about kinship, unde rstudies were to compose a letter to their companions at home. Additionally, they had the option to impart their home encounters to the class. This exhibits the associations from the study hall to students’ inhabits home. In another model, more than once per week, Ms. Mendez composes an individual card to understudies to peruse at home with their folks, in this way Ms. Mendez is elevating associations with study hall to students’ homes. Her understudies observer her sending cards home to their folks accordingly, she is attempting to include guardians in their students’ learning. Notwithstanding sending cards home, Ms. Mendez puts forth an attempt to call home when one of her understudies had missed school for a day or two. She shows concern when understudies don't appear at school. Besides, in her utilization of English and backing for students’ creating language aptitudes, Ms. Mendez shows â€Å"caring† in light of the fact that she is giving her understudies English abilities that will assist them with prevailing in the predominant culture or culture of intensity. Moreover, Ms. Mendez is additionally engaging the understudies by permitting them to get familiar with the prevailing language, allowing them to be in power. Valenzuela alludes to subtractive tutoring as the manner in which schools are sorted out to deduct assets from students† (Valenzuela, 1999). One way that instructors can take away students’ assets is to remove their capacity to communicate in their home language. Ms. Mendez regularly reacts in English to her understudies. She utilizes Spanish to instruct in uncommon events, for example, when understudies make some hard memories understanding an exercise. By addressing her understudies in English, Ms. Mendez is accepting ceaselessly her students’ open doors to speak with her in their home language. Bourdieu’s idea of â€Å"cultural capital† alludes to â€Å"different types of social information, for example, language, methods of social collaboration, and importance, are esteemed progressively in society† (Leistyna et al., 1995). For this situation, Ms. Mendez deemphasizes her students’ social capital by not reacting in Spanish and not ad vancing the utilization of Spanish in the study hall. The facts confirm that understudies ought to get familiar with the prevailing language which is Standard English, yet their utilization of Spanish ought not be confined. Understudies ought to be in a situation where both English and Spanish are utilized, as opposed to barring one language over another. Understudies ought to have the option to utilize the two dialects to advance their learning. Vygosky’s hypothesis expresses that understudies come to class with earlier information from their encounters (Hertsch, 1985). This earlier information incorporates their home language. Given the student’s earlier information, Ms. Mendez can grow and educate from that point. The line isn't clear for subtractive tutoring on account of Ms. Mendez. It is difficult to order if Ms. Mendez exhibits subtractive tutoring or not on the grounds that her activities shows the two classes. Ms. Mendez rehearses subtractive tutoring yet simultaneously she permits her understudies to communicate in Spanish to acquire information, along these lines they are utilizing their social capital. Rather than adjusting or reminding the understudies to utilize just English in her study hall, Ms. Mendez picks to permit her understudies communicate in their favored language. Truth be told, I have never seen her revising or reminding her understudies to utilize English in the homeroom. She permits understudies to utilize Spanish to interpret for different understudies and takes into consideration discussions between understudies to be in Spanish. What's more, when understudies experience issues understanding an exercise that Ms. Mendez educated in English, she would work with the understudy exclusively, utilizing Spanish to enable her understudies to see better. Ms. Mendez utilizes the student’s home language when important to reinforce their comprehension in class. Ms. Mendez is an instructor that truly thinks about her understudies yet as a result of the structure of tutoring, she may not react to understudies in Spanish, in this manner she is compelled to undermine her genuine mindful. It is hard to show that one considerations when you are in a structure that regularly constrains you to follow their approaches. Unexpectedly, Ms. Mendez rehearses subtractive tutoring where she removes the students’ home language as she puts an accentuation on the utilization of English since she feels obliged to follow the school’s arrangements. Ms. Mendez has the goals of furnishing understudies with apparatuses to get by in the predominant culture, however she is compelled to undermine her genuine minding by showing just in English. Her aims can be extended by giving bilingual instruction condition where understudies can utilize their home language and English. Exploration shows that bilingual training causes understudies to â€Å"study topic in their first language while their more vulnerable language abilities get up† (Durkin, 1995). There are numerous ways that bilingual training can assume a significant job in student’s learning. For instance, Ms. Mendez can utilize simultaneous interpretation where a clarification is given in both the students’ essential language (Spanish) and in English during a similar exercise (Durkin, 1995). Moreover, the measure of every language utilized is likewise significant in deciding subtractive tutoring. In her homeroom, Ms. Mendez can utilize English for 70% of the t ime and utilize Spanish for 30% of the time. Along these lines, Spanis

Saturday, August 22, 2020

10 College Essay Topics on the Importance of Education

10 College Essay Topics on the Importance of Education Instruction has been named an essential human right because of its effect on society and its capacity to give anybody paying little heed to race, area or economic wellbeing, the information to getting fruitful in today’s present day world. Its significance ranges across different parts of our lives including its capacity to move advancement and break the chains of destitution experienced in the most powerless conditions where people live. Social orders comprehension of the significance of instruction have prompted the production of various administrative and non-legislative projects intended to furnish everybody with the fundamental instructive necessities expected to work emphatically in any community.â Also, in instructive circles its significance is comprehended and this is the reason money related guide is generally made accessible for skilled understudies from less-special foundations to support their scholarly development. Presently, for understudies who have been burdened with the advantageous chance to talk about the significance of instruction through expositions, this is for you. Here, you will locate some precise and auspicious realities on instruction which will be joined by two different articles furnishing you with points on today’s topic, an example exposition and some bearing on how you ought to continue when composing your own.â Here are valuable Facts on the Importance of Education: Instruction diminishes hunger. The extension of the way to get instruction by ruined countries in Africa and Asia-has had a beneficial outcome in lessening neediness evaluations and unhealthiness in these mainlands. An investigation by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) somewhere in the range of 1970 and 1995, covering 63 nations demonstrated that training represented 55% of the decrease in lack of healthy sustenance accomplished inside that period. Female training additionally had its impact and represented 45% of the decrease in lack of healthy sustenance between similar periods. Instruction assumes a significant job in improving maternal wellbeing and youngster endurance rate. Measurements show that youngsters destined to an informed mother are twice bound to get by to age five than kids destined to an uneducated mother. This can be credited to the way that informed moms are half bound to look for all the fundamental inoculations for their children than their uneducated partners. This goes to show the significant job female training plays in maternal and kid care. Instruction prepares for financial development. Instruction has been illustrated as one of the most significant components that decide the monetary status of a populace as these details appears. Measurements show that no nation without at least 40% of its grown-up populace being able to peruse or compose has accomplished consistent monetary development. An individual’s procuring potential increments by roughly 10% for every time of tutoring got and this thusly builds the GDP of countries that offer quality instruction chances to its residents. In conclusion, the instruction of young ladies prompts exceptional yield rates when contrasted with different types of venture in this manner making training for the young lady youngster an essential for improvement. Instruction energizes harmony. Instruction assumes a significant job in building up the structure hinders that guarantee harmony reigns inside neighborhood networks which thusly guarantees the quiet direct of a nation’s whole society. Every year a male-youngster spends in school diminishes his inclination for viciousness by 20%. Instruction engages ladies and the young ladies. One significant job instruction plays in today’s society is giving ladies the assets to be autonomous just as use sound judgment as respects their wellbeing and funds. Instructing ladies has radically diminished the effect of HIV/Aids and youngster death rates while likewise lightening neediness in numerous networks. A family with an informed spouse additionally builds its procuring potential by roughly half and this makes for better living of the nuclear family and society in general. Instruction influences the Environment. Instructing the world on the should be increasingly mindful of its condition has been recognized by UNICEF as one of the significant topics of the 21st The UNICEF incorporates the requirement for shielding the biological system from contamination in its Sustainable Development Goals and Environmental Education (EE) has started to endure natural products. Research indicated that understudies with a lack of ability to concentrate consistently scatter (ADD) have profited by introduction to nature and this definitely builds their engine aptitudes and capacity to learn. While training at the grown-up level makes people progressively touchy to nature in this way expanding reusing and making manageable urban areas. Instruction influences globalization. Training has prompted better correspondence among people from each country and culture on the planet. Consequently prompting more coordinated effort and comprehension of individual culture. Research shows that understudy who are instructed about the worldwide issues confronting the world and about different societies are twice bound to make social move than their associates who have no information about the world. Worldwide training has made it workable for experts to be found everywhere of the world. Insights show that the quantity of global companies overall rose from 7,000 in the 1990’s to 65,000 out of 2013 and this advances improvement over each aspect of the world. Training and instructed people make productive members of society. Instruction is seen as an essential to great citizenship for it furnishes people with the capacity to use sound judgment and comprehend the requirement for consideration in the entirety of their dealings. Insights show that informed residents are 8% bound to document grievances on unfortunate behavior or report occurrences than uneducated people. This guarantees government establishments work at a significant level of responsibility. Training influences uniformity. Training makes a domain that cultivates fairness between minority populaces and the west which makes it significant for worldwide monetary development. Measurements show that giving quality instruction to understudies from all foundations low pay and high salary diminishes the accomplishment hole among understudies from assorted foundations. In some European nations, for example, Germany, Ireland and Switzerland-the proficiency rate is roughly 92% because of the arrangement of reasonable quality instruction. Instruction influences fanaticism. Training has likewise been hailed as an answer for strict radicalism and as per Former US Ambassador-Bill Richardson-supporting government funded instruction in the Muslim world will definitely diminish psychological warfare by making the people less simple to misuse by fanatic pioneers. The 9/11 commission report additionally focuses on the significance of training in advancing life over death and why the Arab world ought to be taught. It expresses that the expansion in monetary development and scholarly information over the Muslim populace will definitely decrease fanaticism. Note that these are 10 precise realities on the significance of instruction you can utilize when composing a school article on this topic. As expressed before, this is just section one of three pieces that remember our guide for how to expound on the significance of instruction for undergrads and the 20 points covering the significance of training. References: Lawrence, S. (2009). Putting resources into all the People: Educating Women in Developing Countries Littledyke, M. Eames, C. (2009). Training for Sustainability in the Primary Curriculum 43-47. Barbara, H Gene, S. (2004). What Works in Girl Education The Equity and Excellence Commission. (2013). A Strategy for Education, Equity and Excellence for Each and Every Child greatness commission-report.pdf Brian, F. Dwindle, N. (2012). Instructive Equality for Gypsy, Roma and Traveler Children and Young People in the UK. Newman, F. Hasten, J. (2004). The Future of Higher Education 35-40.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Blog Archive Birchbox Co-Founder and CEO Talks About Revolutionizing the Subscription Business

Blog Archive Birchbox Co-Founder and CEO Talks About Revolutionizing the Subscription Business Today, many aspiring MBAs and MBA graduates want to join start-ups or launch such companies themselves. Is entrepreneurship as exciting as it seems? Is it really for you? mbaMission Founder Jeremy Shinewald has teamed up with Venture for America and CBS Interactive  to launch  Smart People Should Build Things: The Venture for America Podcast. Each week, Shinewald interviews another entrepreneur so you can hear the gritty stories of their ups and downs on the road to success. The twentieth installment of the podcast series welcomes Katia Beauchamp, co-founder and CEO of beauty subscription service Birchbox. Beauchamp and co-founder Hayley Barna, both Harvard Business School MBAs, revolutionized the subscription service business with the launch of Birchbox in 2010. The company took off in a way that made Birchbox arguably the most recognizable subscription service in the country. Beauchamp tells listeners what led to the company’s success: Why reaching out to the late Steve Jobs “left a mark” on her Taking a shot in the dark by guessing the email addresses of her favorite beauty companies to ask for five minutes of their time How Birchbox quickly grew into a phenomenon with more than a million subscribers and inspired copycats worldwide Subscribe to the podcast series to hear Beauchamp and many other entrepreneurs share their incredible stories! Share ThisTweet News

Monday, May 25, 2020

Charges Against The King Of Bohemia And Sherlock Holmes

Charges against the King of Bohemia and Sherlock Holmes In â€Å"A Scandal in Bohemia† by Arthur Conan Doyle, Irene Adler, a strong and intelligent actress, accuses Sherlock Holmes and The King of Bohemia with serious charges. Sherlock Holmes is a man who loathes being a part of society and keeps to himself. He is a well known detective with intelligent skills to solve the impossible cases.The King of Bohemia is Holmes client, and former lover of Irene Adler. In an attempt to recover a photograph, which is crucial to The King of Bohemia’s reputation, Sherlock Holmes as well as him are both charged with stalking and attempted robbery. In addition to this, as the London law enforcement officer, I would also deduce charges of possession and the†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å"Five attempts have been made. Twice burglars in my pay ransacked her house† (16). This proves that The King of Bohemia is guilty of conspiracy for the remuneration of a crime. He is an associate with the perpetrators he hired in this illegal act ion. In addition to this, The King of Bohemia is also culpability to stalking Irene Adler. Stalking is defined as an act when one repeatedly follows and harasses another. Evidently, The King of Bohemia stalks Irene Adler because he knew all of her whereabouts, â€Å"Is Briony Lodge, Serpentine Avenue, St. John’s Wood† (17). Yet once again, The King of Bohemia does not directly take part in this felony. However, he contracts men to pursue Irene Adler s every move, in order to detect the proper time to take action.â€Å"Once we diverted her luggage when she travelled. Twice she has been waylaid,† states the King of Bohemia (17). This verifies the men’s attempt, associated with The King, to extract her luggage while pursuing her on her travels in hope of determining the photographs location. As a result of the men failing to retrieve the photograph, he turned to Sherlock Holmes, who was one of the best detectives known. Sherlock Holmes is a well-known detective, deeply in which royalty has asked for his assistance in retrieving a photograph from Irene Adler. He is known for the excellence use of skills in solving crimes, of astute logical reasoning and of disguise. Holmes work has consistently involved

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Adolf Hitler s Influence On The World - 1802 Words

During the 1930s, Adolf Hitler rose to power in the morally and economically broken country of Germany then lead the nation into what was to be known as the â€Å"Third Reich†. Hitler, along with his fellow party members, were able to take over the country at an unfathomable pace along an approval rate that has never been seen before. Adolf was able to consume the support of the nation with the influential effect of his propaganda. The results of his propaganda trump any seen before in the history of the world and may never be replicated or surpassed by any regime. With the help of Joseph Goebbels, influencing young minds, and isolation from the outside world, his propaganda was able to lead a nation to support and exercise the genocide of an entire race. When Hitler came to power, Germany was in the midst of a Great Depression, much worse than any other country in the time period. Thirty percent of the German population were unemployed compared to the twenty - three percent i n the United States of America. Not to mention, there was also 226 Billion Reichsmarks worth of debt to be paid from the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I: this equates to five - hundred, fifteen billion dollars today. No bank would allow that many people, let alone the entire nation, to take out a loan due to the excessive amount of risk of not getting the money. Just by chance, most of the banks in Germany were run by Jewish people. The nation was in desperate need of a leader to bringShow MoreRelatedAdolf Hitler s Influence On His Deeds During World War Two Essay1984 Words   |  8 PagesHitler Adolf Hitler has the image of having a ruthless evil character from his deeds during world war two. However evidences show that he was not a terribly evil person, but a normal person with large ambitions. Canadian prime minister Mackenzie King wrote in his journal after meeting with Adolf Hitler that, he is really one who truly loves his fellow-men, and his country, and would make any sacrifice for their good†¦a man of deep sincerity and a genuine patriot, which all shows he was naturallyRead MoreHitler s Impact On The World War II1636 Words   |  7 Pagessquare, saluting and chanting Hitler s name. World War II has begun and many Germans hope for improvements in the economy. Their leader is Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany in World War II, was a powerful speaker who caused over 5 million deaths in concentration camps. Though Hitler s impact can be felt in modern times, the roots of his atrocious behavior began at childhood—more specifically—high s chool. Years before Adolf Hitler was born, Hitler s great grandfather, Johann GeorgRead MoreAdolf Hitler As A Leader Of Nazi Germany1677 Words   |  7 PagesAdolf Hitler once said â€Å"It is more difficult to fight against faith than against knowledge† (â€Å"30 Eye Catching Hitler Quotes.). In a dictatorship there is one ruler who is in charge of everything in the nation in which he/she rules. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau am Inn. Hitler also known as Fà ¼hrer; he was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and served as dictator from 1934 to 1945. Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany, he was one of the initial causes which triggeredRead MoreAdolf Hitler : Leading The Genocide1182 Words   |  5 PagesAdriana Flores Mrs.Harrington English 2; Per. 5 23 March 2015 Adolf Hitler: Leading the Genocide The Holocaust was the mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime in 1941 to 1945. There are many components of this significant event. One important component was Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party and Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945. Hitler contributed to the execution of Jews during WWII through his ideology, his dictatorship, and his leadership of the Nazi Party. To initiateRead MoreAdolf Hitler : An Experimental View1562 Words   |  7 Pagesstudies performed by Stanley Milgram (1974).Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York, NY: Harper Row. The dictator I chosen to write my paper is Adolf Hitler. Born in Austria in 1889, Adolf Hitler rose to power in German politics as leader of Nazi Party (the National Socialist German Workers Party). Adolf Hitler was chancellor of Germany from 1933 - 1945, and served as dictator from 1934- 1945. His policies lead to World War II and the Holocaust. The Great DepressionRead MoreHitler s Influence On The World946 Words   |  4 PagesThe world would be different today if not for one very important leader of Germany. â€Å"[Hitler] had more impact on the history of the world in the 20th century than any other political figure.† (Noakes, 1) Considered one of the cruelest men of the 1900’s, Adolf Hitler was also one of the greatest leaders. As a young boy, Hit ler was always interested in war and when he was old enough, he went to serve his country in World War I. While in recovery after being wounded, Hitler heard that Germany surrenderedRead MoreHitler vs. Gandhi1721 Words   |  7 Pageshis education here, however, he decided he disliked and traveled to the University College London, leaving his wife and infant son (Ghandis Life). It was while attending school in London that he initially became exposed to the diversity of the world; he pursued the study of religions such as Hinduism, Christianity, and Buddhism (Mahatma). After being admitted to the English Bar, Gandhi returned to India. He, however, had a difficult time finding work, and in 1893 he accepted a year’s contractRead MoreColby Warzecha. College English. 2017. The Rise And Fall1739 Words   |  7 PagesCollege English 2017 The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler WWII was undoubtedly one of the world’s greatest calamities with millions of lives lost. This war impacts the world even today. No person bears more responsibility than Adolf Hitler. It is important; however, to learn and understand his life so that the world does not repeat the same mistakes as seen in the 20th century. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau, Austria. His father, Alois Hitler, worked as a mid-level customs officialRead MoreEssay about Profile of Adolf Hitler (1889 -1945)774 Words   |  4 Pages Profile of Adolf Hitler (1889 -1945) Family Background Adolf Hitler was born on April 20th 1889 in Braunau-am-Inn, Austria. The town is near to the Austro-German border, and his father, Alois, worked as a customs officer on the border crossing. His mother, Klara, had previously given birth to two other children by Alois, (Gustav and Ida) but they both died in their infancy. Adolf attended school from the age of six and the family lived in various villagesRead MoreA Dystopian Society Is An Imbalance Between The Government And The People Essay1372 Words   |  6 Pages Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany Luigi Zavala Ms. Underhill 6 HELA 21 November 2016 Thesis Statement: A dystopian society is an imbalance between the government and the people and how their choices affect the society in a bad way; Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany is a very good example of a dystopian society. By analyzing Nazi Germany and Hitler’s tyranny, one can notice Adolf’s changes in Germany, his impacts on people, and how the genres of literature can be taught through

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Art Of The Readymade Essay - 1816 Words

The Art of the readymade, a controversial topic both at the beginning of its conception and its duration, was provocative for artists and audiences alike. What made the readymade so provocative was the push by artists to go against one of the foundations of art, the material, and instead focus almost entirely on its conceptual development. In short, a consequence of the readymade according to Helen’s Molesworth was â€Å"a disavowal of an ontological definition of art† . A definition previously shaped by academic art focusing on the considered beautiful aesthetics of artworks that pleased audiences up to the early 20th century. In this essay it will be argued that the readymade defies the â€Å"retinal† aspect of art through two factors. The first factor is the application of a foundational physical three step process to allow the readymade to be considered as art. This process is outlined as the inclusive selection of object(s), the removal of the object(s) ori ginal purpose and its artistic redefinition through its placement. Alongside this process is the second factor which is the artists own personal experiences that accompanies and influences the readymades purpose. The process and influence from personal experiences are evidently applied to readymades including Marcel Duchamp’s work Fountain, 1917 and Tracey Emin’s work My Bed, 1998. These readymades are considered art as this process and experience becomes the pivotal point in the development of art shifting and redefining theShow MoreRelatedReadymade Art Essay1113 Words   |  5 Pagesconcept of â€Å"readymade† art was introduced by Marcel Duchamp when he took an ordinary snow shovel and painted the title In advance of the broken arm. He had previously turned a wheel up-side down and attached it to a stool, creating a piece he called Bicycle wheel. This was also considered a â€Å"readymade.† A â€Å"readymade† by Duchamp is â€Å"an ordinary ob ject elevated to the dignity of a work of art by the mere choice of an artist.† Duchamp produced many of these â€Å"readymades,† but it his readymade entitledRead MoreI Will Address Why Readymades Are Regarded As A Work Of Art1473 Words   |  6 Pagescan find many art movements that caused great controversy but the dada movement is one that continues to cause great controversy even now with their use of read-made objects. Ready-made objects are a strong source of controversy because it pushes the borders of concepts and meaning by using artworks that they didn’t create themselves. In this essay I will address why readymades’ are regarded as a work of art despite the controversy behind them and how they influenced conceptual art. In BlindmanRead MoreThe Concept Of Readymade Art Emerged At The Forefront Of The 20th Century1034 Words   |  5 PagesPanasiuk April 9, 2015 The concept of readymade art emerged at the forefront of the 20th century. Artists introduced conceptual pieces that relied solely on perception, rather than creation. This destructuralization of the art world blurred the lines between art and non-art. Absurdity had been introduced, and standards plummeted, in limbo for eternity. Art became void of all rules and obligations, the very distinctions they require. With no structure the art world is obsolete. Through theories ofRead MoreThe Art World Is A Forever Changing System1614 Words   |  7 PagesThe art world is a forever changing system, with new ideas and concepts constantly emerging. Marcel Duchamp, working in a world where art was focused heavily on pleasing the eye, is seen to emerge with a new idea that aimed to challenge this ‘retinal’ approach that was expected of art during this time. Duchamp would call this new approach ‘the readymade’.†¨This essay will discuss how Duchamp used the readyma de, specifically his 1913 piece Bicycle Wheel, to move away from the focus on the visual andRead MoreDadaism and Conceptual Art: Marcel Duchamp1324 Words   |  6 Pagesevaluate how Duchamp’s exhibition of readymade objects changed the status and value of artistic authorship. Readymade is a term devised by Marcel Duchamp in 1915 to label manufactured objects remote from their practical setting and raised to the prestige of art by the action of an artist’s choice and label. Marcel Duchamp was a French-American painter and sculptor. His work is linked with Dadaism and conceptual art, a movement that examined suppositions of what art must be, and in what way it shouldRead MoreDadaism Art763 Words   |  4 Pagesis an art movement from the post World War 1 era (/ Dadaism was founded by an author named Hugo Ball in 1916 ( Dadaism is more than paintings and drawings. Dadaism can be anything from visual arts, literature, and theatrical performances ( I like Dadaism because it is art that makes people think about the question what is art in a way that other art styles do not. The point of Dada is to confuse the person looking at the art. The threeRead MoreCommentary On The History Of Communication Design788 Words   |  4 Pagesbarbarism was being offered alternatively. Art also suffered and the alternative for this appeared to be Dadaism. The movement was ultra-leftist, anti-war, anti-estab lishment and most relevantly, anti-art. The Dadaist movement was a direct criticism of traditional artistic values and provoked with outrageous statements and actions. They classified the art that came before as a part of the system and therefore, attacked it, questioning the value of art and whether it only existed as an indulgentRead MoreThe Controversy of Marcel Duchamp Essay855 Words   |  4 Pages One of the most unique figures in the continuum of the art world, Marcel Duchamp changed the way we look at and produce art today. Marcel Duchamp was by far, one of the most controversial figures in art. Two of the most well known and talked about pieces by him are The Fountain and The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even . Duchamp created many other pieces that caught the attention of critics, other artists, and the population in a negative way; however, these two pieces alone, brought aboutRead MoreGeorge Benjamin Luks : A New York City1437 Words   |  6 PagesMany times in society, life is sometimes influenced by art and during other times art is imitated by life. Art being able to imitate life means that the brush strokes of a painter or the innovative ideas of an architect are influenced by the world around him or her. During the years of 1900-1917 the United States was going through a number of changes. These changes helped to indentify the period as the Reformation Era. During the Reformation era the United States was becoming reshaped politicallyRead MoreMarcel Duchamp And John Cage1574 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will demonstrate how two revolutionary artists, Marcel Duchamp and John Cage still play a significant role in contemporary art practice and theory today. During the early 20th century, Marcel Duchamp was influenced by the emerging artistic movements such as Dada and Cubism. He experimented with Cubism briefly and attempted to capture time and motion in a cubist style painting. He endeavoured to â€Å"detheorize’ Cubism in order to give it a freer interpretation’. Inspired by his time lapse

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Cults in Nigeria free essay sample

The organization is dedicated to humanitarian and charitable endeavourers within Nigeria and whatever society the members find themselves. The Pirates Creed The Piratical aims of fighting all social ills and conformist degradation within and outside our midst stand supreme. These are translated into the creed which is supposed to act as a guide to our acts and thoughts and to the solutions to dilemmas that may face us in making choices in life.There are four compass points whose function is to give us founding principles upon which to direct our lives. ; Against Convention ; Against Tribalism ; For Humanistic Ideals ; For Comradeship and Calvary Certain psychological themes which recur in these various historical contexts also arise in the study of cults. Cults can be identified by three characteristics: 1. A charismatic leader who increasingly becomes an object of worship as the general principles that may have originally sustained the group lose their power; 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Cults in Nigeria or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A process call coercive persuasion or thought reform; 3. Anomic, sexual, and other exploitation of group members by the leader and the ruling coterie. Milieu Control The first method characteristically used by ideological totality is milieu control: the control of all communication within a given environment In such an environment individual autonomy becomes a threat to the group. There is an attempt to manage an individuals inner communication. Milieu control is maintained and expressed by intense group process, continuous psychological pressure, and isolation by geographical distance, unavailability of transportation, or even physical restraint. Often the group creates an increasingly intense sequence of events such as seminars, lectures and encounters which makes leaving extremely difficult, both physically and psychologically. Intense milieu control can contribute to a dramatic change of identity which I call doubling: the formation of a second self which lives side by side with the former one, often for a considerable time. When the milieu control is lifted, elements of the earlier self may be reasserted. Creating a Pawn A second characteristic of totalistic environments is mystical manipulation or planned spontaneity.This is a systematic process through which the dervish can create in cult members what I call the psychology of the pawn. The process is managed so that it appears to arise spontaneously; to its objects it rarely feels like manipulation. Religious techniques such as fasting chanting and limited sleep are used. Manipulation may take on a special intense quality in a cult for which a particular chosen human being is the only source of salvation. The person of the leader may attract members to the cult, but can also be a source of disillusionment.If members of the Unification Church, for example, come to believe that Sun Unsung Moon, its founder, is associated with the Korean Central Intelligence Agency, they may lose their faith. Mystical manipulation may also legitimate deception of outsiders, as in the heavenly deception of the Unification Church and analogous practices in other cult environments. Anyone who has not seen the light and therefore lives in the realm of evil can be justifiably deceived for a higher purpose.For instance, collectors of funds may be advised to deny their affiliation with a cult that has a dubious public reputation. Purity and Confession Two other features of totality are a demand for purity and a cult of confession. The demand for purity is a call for radical separation of good and evil within the environment and within oneself. Purification is a continuing process, often institutionalized in the cult of confession, which enforces conformity through guilt and shame evoked by mutual criticism and self- criticism in small groups.Confessions contain varying mixtures of revelation and concealment. As Albert Scams observed, Authors of confessions write especially to avoid confession, to tell nothing of what they know. Young cult members confessing the sins of their prelatic lives may leave out ideas and linings that they are not aware of or reluctant to discuss, including a continuing identification with their prior existence. Repetitious confession, especially in required meetings, often expresses an arrogance in the name of humility.As Scams wrote: l practice the profession of penitence to be able to end up as a judge, and, The more I accuse myself, the more I have a right to judge you. Three further aspects of ideological totality are sacred science, loading of the language, and the principle of doctrine over person Sacred science is important because a claim of being scientific is often needed to main plausibility and influence in the modern age. The Unification Church is one example of a contemporary tendency to combine dogmatic religious principles with a claim to special scientific knowledge of human behavior and psychology.The term loading the language refers to literalism and a tendency to deify words or images. A simplified, cliche-ridden language can exert enormous psychological force reducing every issue in a complicated life to a single set of slogans that are said to embody the truth as a totality. The principle of doctrine over person is invoked when cult members sense a inflict between what they are experiencing and what dogma says they should experience. The internalized message of the totalistic environment is that one must negate that personal exp erience on behalf of the truth of the dogma.Contradictions become associated with guilt: doubt indicates ones own deficiency or evil. Perhaps the most significant characteristic of totalistic movements is what I call dispensing of existence. Those who have not seen the light and embraced the truth are wedded to evil, tainted, and therefore in some sense, usually metaphorical, lack the right to exist. That is one reason why a cult member threatened with being cast into outer darkness may experience a fear of extinction or collapse. Ender particularly malignant conditions, the dispensing of existence is taken literally; in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and elsewhere, people were put to death for alleged doctrinal shortcomings. In the Peoples Temple mass suicide-murder in Guyana, a cult leader presided over the literal dispensing of existence by means of a suicidal mystique he himself had made a central theme in the groups ideology. The totalistic impulse to draw a sharp line between those who have the right to eve and those who do not is especially dangerous in the nuclear age.Historical Context Totality should a lways be considered within a specific historical context. A significant feature of contemporary life is the historical (or psycho historical) dislocation resulting from a loss of the gym folic structures that organize ritual transitions in the life cycle, and a decay of belief systems concerning religion, authority, marriage, family, and death. One function of cults is to provide a group initiation rite for the transition to early adult life, and the formation of an adult identity outside the family.Cult members have good reasons for eyeing attempts by the larger culture to make such provisions as hypocritical or confused. In providing substitute symbols for young people, cults are both radical and reactionary. They are radical because they suggest rude questions about middle-class family life and American political and religious values in general. They are reactionary because they revive performed structures of authority and sometimes establish fascist patterns of internal organization.Furthermore, in their assault on autonomy and self-de finition some cults reject a liberating historical process that has evolved with great struggle and main in the West since the Renaissance. (Cults must be considered individually in making such judgments. Historical dislocation is one source of what I call the protean style. This involves a continuous psychological experimentation with the self, a capacity for endorsing contradictory ideas at the same time, and a tendency to change ones ideas, companions and way of life with relative ease.Cults embody a contrary restricted style, a flight from experimentation and the confusion of a protean world. These contraries are related: groups and individuals can embrace a protean and a restricted style n turn. For instance, the so-called hippie ethos of the sass and sass has been replaced by the present so-called Yuppie preoccupation with safe jobs and comfortable incomes. For some people, experimentation with a cult is part of the protean search. The imagery of extinction derived from the con temporary threat of nuclear war influences patterns of totality and fundamentalism throughout the world.Nuclear war threatens human continuity itself and impairs the symbols of immortality. Cults seize upon this threat to provide amortizing principles of their own. The cult environment plies a continuous opportunity for the experience Of transcendence a mode of symbolic immortality generally suppressed in advanced industrial society. Role of Psychology Cults raise serious psychological concerns, and there is a place for psychologists and psychiatrists in understanding and treating cult members. But our powers as mental health professionals are limited, so we should exercise restraint.When helping a young person confused about a cult situation, it is important to maintain a personal therapeutic contract so that one is not working for the cult or for the parents. Totality begets totality. What is called deprogramming includes a continuum from intense dialogue on the one hand to physical coercion and kidnapping, with thought-reform-like techniques, on the other. My own position, which I have repeatedly conveyed to parents and others who consult me, is to oppose coercion at either end of the cult process. Cults are primarily a social and cultural rather than a psychiatric or legal problem.But psychological professionals can make important contributions to the public education crucial for dealing with the problem. With greater knowledge about them, people are less susceptible to exception, and for that reason some cults have been finding it more difficult to recruit members. Yet painful moral dilemmas remain. When laws are violated through fraud or specific harm to recruits, legal intervention is clearly indicated. But what about situations in which behavior is virtually automated, language reduced to rote and cliche, yet the cult member expresses a certain satisfaction or even happiness?We must continue to seek ways to encourage a social commitment to individual autonomy and avoid coercion and violence. N destructive cults, members are manipulated and exploited, they may distance themselves from their family and friends and even leave their careers to work in the cult, often for little or no pay. Their own beliefs and values have been changed to those of the group, and they identify with the group and the leader. They suffer psychological and emotional abuse, and there may be physical or sexual abuse.And very often, at the same time, they believe that theyve never been happier in their lives. Such is the power of mind control! Usually there is an elitist mentality because they have acce ss to information or their leader in a way that outsiders do not. They become very defensive of their leader and in a way their identity and their well-being becomes linked the well-being of the leader. Hence, they will usually be very quick to defend him/her, often aggressively! In the most obvious cases, family and friends notice that there has been a significant change since the person joined the group.A change in their beliefs, attitudes, behaviors and values. They often say its like dealing with a different person. IMPACT ON SOCIETY When we think about cults in this way, it is obvious that they are detrimental to society in many ways. Nowadays, young and old alike are susceptible to eyeing recruited. When people think about cults they do not often consider older people, but nowadays old people are targets because they have money, and may be extremely vulnerable, for example, they find themselves living alone after the recent death of their spouse. When and if members manage to leave, they may need an extensive period of recuperation before they can integrate themselves usefully into society again. Some cults are so large that they have extraordinary (and frightening! )influence in the media, in politics, and in lawmaking. They may dominate whole communities. Some cults are violent, leading to suicides and murders. Destructive cults thrive on conspiracy and fraud, and the legal system is often ill-equipped to deal with them.Cults deny people their freedom. They take away their possessions. Frequently there is sexual abuse. Its possible that many mentally ill people have been in cults, and dont know it. The symptoms they have after leaving a cult are interpreted as mental illness (yes, post-cult symptoms can be that severe! ) And they are treated as such, instead of getting the advice and counseling from experts who understand their situation, and can actually help them to undo the harmful effects of cult mind control.